Pietro Gambadauro MD PhD 1,2,3,*, Maria Ángeles Martínez-Maestre MD PhD 4, José Schneider MD PhD 5, Rafael Torrejón MD PhD 2
1 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2 Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain; 3 Res Medica Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden; 4 Gynecology Division, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Seville, Spain; 5 Department of Gynaecology, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
J Obstet Gynaecol 2014, DOI: 10.3109/01443615.2014.916255
The association between polyps and endometrial cancer is under debate. The main objectives of this study were to study the frequency and the characteristics of malignant and premalignant endometrial changes in women with endometrial polyp at ultrasound. The study population consisted of 1,390 consecutive patients that were referred to office hysteroscopy because of the ultrasonographic diagnosis of endometrial polyps. A total of 16 cases of endometrial neoplasia were diagnosed (1.15%). The frequencies of atypia and cancer in our population were 0.14% and 1.01%, respectively. All patients, except one, were postmenopausal (93.8%). All had undergone the initial ultrasonographic assessment because of symptoms (bleeding in the 93.8%). The neoplasia was not confined to the polyp in 75% of the cases. Nine cases had a lower risk disease (56.25%; atypical hyperplasia or endometrial cancer stage IA-G1,2), while seven had a higher risk cancer (43.75%; ≥ stage IA-G3). Patients with a higher risk disease, were found to be significantly younger, and their polyps were smaller, albeit non-significantly. In spite of the common practice to refer all women with an ultrasound diagnosis of polyp to hysteroscopy, our data show how the prevalence of endometrial neoplasia in these patients is low (1.15%). Moreover, the malignancy is not confined to a polyp in most of the cases.
Keywords: endometrial polyps; endometrial cancer; hysteroscopy; ultrasound; hysteroscopic surgery