Pietro Gambadauro MD MSc (Med Ed) PhD, Milan Milenkovic MD PhD, Gergö Hadlaczky MSc PhD
J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2018 Sep – Oct;25(6):963-973. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2018.03.024.
Hysteroscopy simulation complements conventional training on patients, yet evidence-based recommendations about its implementation and use are lacking. This systematic review analyzes and critically discusses hysteroscopy simulation literature published over the last 30 years. Systematic searches on PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library produced 27 original articles published through 2017. Strategies based on different simulation models (e.g., animal organs, vegetables, synthetic uteri, virtual reality) were evaluated by users and appeared to facilitate learning. Observational studies have suggested a large impact on the knowledge and technical skills of novices for a wide range of hysteroscopic procedures, including for diagnosis, resection, and sterilization. Pretest/posttest studies show large improvements in performance time (6 studies; pooled effect size, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.85) and overall performance scores (4 studies; pooled effect size, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.45–4.94). Additionally, performance assessment on simulated models distinguishes novices from experts. Caution should be exercised because the available evidence largely originates from heterogeneous studies with weak designs, conducted in experimental settings with nonclinical participants (i.e., medical students). Moreover, neither clinical outcomes nor the clinical value of simulation-based assessment has been addressed. Hysteroscopy simulation may be supported ethically and pedagogically, but its role should be evaluated in pragmatic contexts, with robust interventional studies and broader competence-defining outcomes that include nontechnical skills.
KEYWORDS: Competence; Diagnostic hysteroscopy; Education; Hysteroscopic sterilization; Hysteroscopic surgery